بالا بردن نمره Coherence و Cohesion و نوشتن یک پاراگراف با Cohesion بالا
در فصل اول، در ارتباط با Coherence و Cohesion یک بحث کوتاه داشتیم. اینکه این معیار از بین چهار معیار نمره دهی رایتینگ به چه معناست و براساس چه قوائدی می توانید از این معیار نمره 7 به بالا بگیرید. این فصل به صورت کامل در ارتباط با این معیار بحث میکنیم و به روش های عملی برای رسیدن به نمره بالا در این معیار خواهیم رسید.
در این ویدیو روش هایی رو برای بالا بردن نمره Coherence و Cohesion بررسی خواهیم کرد و در قسمت های بعدی این فصل، به کاربرد این روش ها در نوشتن یک مقدمه سریع، چگونگی ادامه دادن پاراگراف های Body و رسیدن به یک نتیجه گیری درست را برای رایتینگ های تسک 2 می پردازیم.
1. Conjunctions of addition and replacement
Additive conjunctions simply add more information to what is already there.
and, also, in addition, not only … but also, moreover, furthermore
Ex. The study used a small sample only and was strongly criticized for this reason. Furthermore, the initial premise of the research was considered questionable in the light of previous evidence.
Conjunctions of replacement replace one piece of information with another. That is, they offer an alternative.
or, or else, alternatively
Ex. The results could be interpreted to mean that high levels of protein are beneficial to diet generally. Alternatively, they could also mean that high protein levels are only beneficial to severely overweight males.
2. Conjunctions of comparison, contrast and concession
Comparative conjunctions are used to link two ideas that are considered to be similar.
in the same way, likewise, just as, both … and.
Ex. Reading aloud to young children stimulates their interest in books. Similarly, visiting libraries or book fairs has been shown to increase children’s readiness to engage with print.
Contrastive conjunctions link two ideas that are considered to be different.
but, however, in contrast, on the contrary, while, whereas, instead, nevertheless, yet, still, neither … nor.
Ex. This evidence points clearly to a fall in the number of unemployed. On the other hand, anecdotal evidence from reputable charities suggests that the number of people seeking financial support has increased.
Concessive conjunctions are a subgroup of contrastive conjunctions. They are used to contrast one idea with another where one piece of information appears to be surprising or unexpected in view of the other idea.
although, even though, despite, in spite of
Ex: Even though money has been poured into literacy programs, literacy levels among 12-15 year olds do not appear to be improving.
3. Conjunctions of exemplification and restatement
Conjunctions of exemplification are simply used to introduce examples.
for example, to illustrate this, such as
Ex. There are many ways of interesting young children in reading. For instance, regular trips to the library have been shown to greatly increase children’s awareness of books.
Conjunctions of restatement are used to reword or sum up information.
that is, to put it another way, to sum up, in brief.
Ex. The chances of children not finishing their education are magnified by certain factors. In other words, there are specific factors which will increase the likelihood of children leaving school early.
4. Conjunctions of cause and condition
Conjunctions of cause highlight a cause-effect relationship between two ideas or give a reason why something happens or is the case.
for this reason, as, because, because of this, therefore, thus, hence, as a result, consequently, since, so
Ex. The purpose of the study was withheld from the participants so that the results would not be skewed.
Conjunctions of condition outline or suggest the conditions under which something happens unless, if … then, in that case
Ex. If literacy levels are to improve, more resources have to be put into teacher training.
5. Conjunctions of time
Conjunctions of time locate or sequence events or ideas in time.
after, afterwards, before, previously, prior to, to the present, at present, second(ly), third(ly), finally.
Ex. The researchers first examined the impact of obesity on levels of childhood activity generally. They then narrowed their investigation to its impact on children’s ability to cope at school.
تمرین شماره ۱۳: با استفاده از جملات داده شده، یک پاراگراف با Cohesion بالا تولید کنید.
تمرین شماره ۱۴: پنج لغت انتهای ویدیو را بخوانید و با استفاده از یک دیکشنری سعی کنید کالوکیشن های آن را پیدا کنید. سپس جملات داده شده را طوری بنویسید که از این لغات به درستی در آنها استفاده شده باشد.