روش‌های Paraphrase کردن در رایتینگ آیلتس

حتما شنیدید که باید در Writing و Speaking از پارافریز کلمات استفاده کنیم. پارافریز کردن یک مهارت ضروری در آیلتس است. در این پست به بررسی این مهارت می‌پردازیم.

منظور از پارافریز کردن، بازنویسی ساختاری یک عبارت و یا یک جمله با کلمات متفاوت است به صورتی که معنی آن تغییر نکند. پارافریز کردن یکی از مهمترین مهارت های لازم برای آزمون آیلتس است به طوریکه آنرا مهمترین مهارت برای Speaking و Writing می‌دانند. تسلط به این مهارت شما را در بخش Reading و Listening نیز بسیار کمک خواهد کرد. به عبارت دیگر، اگر بتوانید پارافریزها را درست تشخیص بدهید، می‌توانید نمره مورد نظرتان را کسب کنید.

به این مثال خوب دقت کنید:

Example:  Paraphrasing is one of the most important skills to learn before doing your IELTS test.
Paraphrased:  Prior to taking the IELTS test, mastering paraphrasing is one of the most crucial things to do.

همانطوریکه می‌بینید، در دومین جمله (جمله پارافریز شده) از مترادف ها (از crucial به جای important و از prior به جای before) و از تغییر ساختار (mastering paraphrasing به جای paraphrasing is one of the most important skills) استفاده شده است. همچنین که می‌بینید، میتوان ترتیب کلمات را نیز تغییر داد. در آیلتس چهار روش خوب برای پارافریز کردن وجود دارد. ایده‌آل آن است که از هر چهار روش استفاده کنید اما گاهی فقط دو روش امکان‌پذیر خواهد بود. در ادامه به بررسی این چهار روش می‌پردازیم. 

روش اول: استفاده از مترادف‌ها
مترادف ها کلمات متفاوتی هستند که معنای یکسان دارند. به عنوان مثال، humans مترادف people و attractive مترادف beautiful است. در این روش، لغات را به سادگی با مترادف های آنها جایگزین میکنیم تا به یک جمله جدید برسیم.

به عنوان مثال:

My car needs petrol.
My vehicle requires fuel.

همانطوریکه می‌بینید، در این جمله از سه مترادف استفاده شده است تا به یک جمله جدید برسیم. این، متداول‌ترین روشی است که زبان‌آموزان استفاده می‌کنند اما در استفاده از آن باید بسیار محتاط باشید. بزرگترین مشکلی که دانشجویان در این روش دارند، استفاده از کلماتی است که معنای مشابه دارند اما معنای آنها یکسان نیست. کلمات مشابه برای پارافریز کردن خوب نیستند و در استفاده از آنها، نمره از دست خواهید داد. بیایید نگاهی به یک مثال پارافزیز ضعیف بیاندازیم:

Violent crime is on the rise among teenagers.
Violent offences are rising among young people.

در اینجا، به جای teenagers از young people استفاده شده است. این کلمات، معنای مشابهی دارند، اما با هم متفاوت هستند. منظور از young people، می‌تواند افرادی باشد که سنی بین 18 تا 30 سال دارند و teenagers را شامل نمی‌شود. برای پارافریز، میتوانستیم از کلمه adolescents استفاده کنیم که افراد بین 13 تا 19 سال را شامل می شود.

Violent offences are rising among adolescents.

بنابراین برای پارافریز کردن، تنها از لغاتی استفاده کنید که 100% مطمئن هستند مترادف دقیق کلمه مورد نظر است و اگر مطمئن نیستید، از آن استفاده نکنید چون حتما نمره از دست خواهید داد. بیایید به یک مثال خوب دیگر نگاه بیاندازیم:

Global warming is mostly caused by emissions from internal combustion engines.
Climate change is mainly caused by the release of fumes from motor vehicles.

 

روش دوم: تغییر ترتیب کلمات
تغییر ترتیب کلمات نیز به شما اجازه می‌دهد یک جمله را به خوبی پارافریز کنید، اما در استفاده از این روش نیز باید دقت زیادی به خرج دهید. اگر تغییر این ترتیب، بر گرامر جمله‌تان تاثیر اشتباه بگذارد، این پارافریز کردن نیز درست نخواهد بود. در این روش، ممکن است لازم باشد، یک کلمه اضافه شود یا کم شود و یا شکل کلمه نیز تغییر کند.
در این روش نیز قانون 100% باید رعایت شود؛ اگر مطمئن نیستید که جمله پارافریز شده از نظر گرامری درست است یا نه، جمله را تغییر ندهید. به یاد داشته باشید که نوشتن جملات کاملا درست در اولویت قرار دارد. خوشبختانه، دو روش سر راست برای تغییر کلمات وجود دارد.

1. می‌توانید به سادگی، جای کلازها را تغییر دهید؛ البته اگر جمله چند کلاز داشته باشید. به عنوان مثال:

Question: As languages such as Spanish, Chinese and English become more widely used, there is a fear that that many minority languages may die out.
Paraphrased by changing word order: There is a fear that many minority languages may die out, as languages such as Spanish, Chinese and English become more widely used.

همچنین می‌توانید از مترادف‌ها هم استفاده کنید تا پارافریز دقیق‌تر شود:

Paraphrased with changing word order AND synonyms: There is dismay that many lesser used languages may pass away, as languages such as Chinese, English and Spanish become more broadly spoken.

2. همچنین می‌توانید اگر یک صفت یا اسم در جمله وجود دارد، نیز پارافریز را انجام دهید. برای اینکار، کافی است صفت را به یک کلاز ربطی (Relative Clauses) تبدیل کنید. به عنوان مثال:

Question: Learning to manage money is one of the key aspects to adult life.
Paraphrased using a relative clause: Learning to manage money is one of the aspects to adult life that is key.

روش سوم: تغییر شکل کلمه
یک کلمه می‌تواند به شکل‌های مختلف ظاهر شود؛ اسم، فعل، صفت و یا قید. تغییر شکل یک کلمه به شما اجازه می‌دهد، پارافریزهای بهتری داشته باشید. باز تاکید میکنیم که در این روش نیز اگر 100% مطمئن نیستید، این کار را انجام ندهید. همچنین با تغییر کلمه، گاهی لازم است کلمات کنار آن را نیز تغییر دهید. به عنوان مثال:

Question: Longer life spans and improvements in the health of older people suggest that people over the age of sixty-five can continue to live full and active lives.
Paraphrased by changing word form: Longer life spans and improvements in the health of older people are suggesting that people over the age of sixty-five can continue living full and active lives.

روش چهارم: تغییر از معلوم به مجهول
وجه مجهول معمولاً در نوشته های رسمی و آکادمیک استفاده می‌شود و بنابراین در آیلتس نیز جایگاه خوبی دارد. تنها افعالی که دارای صفت هستند را می‌توان به مجهول تبدیل کرد:

Example active sentence: The property developers invested $20 million in the development of the shopping centre.
Example passive sentence: $20 million was invested in the development of shopping centres.

Example active: People say that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels.
Example passive: Global warming is said to be caused by the burning of fossil fuels.

چندبار از این روش‌ها می‌توانیم استفاده کنم؟
این روشها را هرچند بار که می‌خواهید به صورت مستقل یا با هم می‌توانید استفاده کنید. اما حتما از یک روش وقتی استفاده کنید که 100% از آن مطمئن هستید.

مرحله بعد
این روش‌های پارافریز کردن، نیاز به تمرین بسیار دارند. سعی کنید سوالات مختلف را جلوی خودتان بگذارید و آنها را پارافریز نمایید. اگر این روش‌ها را خوب تمرین کنید، حتما خیلی زود به نتیجه دلخواه خواهید رسید.
برای تمرین بیشتر می‌توانید از Google استفاده کنید. اگر چند کلمه کلیدی خاص را گوگل کنید، مقالات مختلفی در مورد آن موضوع پیدا میکنید. با مقایسه آنها می‌توانید ببینید نویسنده‌های مختلف چطور، ایده‌های مشابه را بیان کرده‌اند.

 

تمرین: با استفاده از روش های پارافریز کردن که در بالا توضیح داده شد، یک مقدمه برای موضوع زیر بنویسید - یادتان باشد، مقدمه باید پارافریز سوال باشد و بهتر است موضوع اضافه ای را شامل نشود

Public celebrations (such as national days, festivals etc) are held in most countries. These are often quite expensive and some people say that governments should spend money on more useful things. Do you agree or disagree?

 


نظرات (18)

This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

In most countries throughout the world are held celebrations which are public. These are often incredibly costly and some ones believe that should pay money for on more useful things.

This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

Festivels are the Biggest results for various actions which happined from ancient days. Different societies has been celebrates their
pleasurable moments in different ways. Celebration is a combine consequence of admiring’s, memorizing’s, and...

Festivels are the Biggest results for various actions which happined from ancient days. Different societies has been celebrates their
pleasurable moments in different ways. Celebration is a combine consequence of admiring’s, memorizing’s, and happiness with traditions, cultures and new trends. Therefore, celebrating festival can be agreeable but, unreasonable way of spending money on
. celebrations can’t be accepted

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

Holding public celebrations tends to be a debatable issue with which many countries have been literally dealing recently. These days, it is being argued that becuase of its vast expenses, money should be spent on things that is more practical.

This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

Annually, a great deal of money is allocated on helding costy public celebrayions.It is believed that it is an exessive expenditure and the money shoulde be assigned to more essential issues of the society instead.I personally believe that this...

Annually, a great deal of money is allocated on helding costy public celebrayions.It is believed that it is an exessive expenditure and the money shoulde be assigned to more essential issues of the society instead.I personally believe that this cellebrtions are nessesary for mental health of the society

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

The matter of celebrating festivals and national days have became an important event for some people these days.These kinds of celebrations are generally expensive while others say that government should not allocate budgets to them.I contend...

The matter of celebrating festivals and national days have became an important event for some people these days.These kinds of celebrations are generally expensive while others say that government should not allocate budgets to them.I contend that public celebrations can help a country in a positive way.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

Some peoples believe that the the expenditure of national feasts, presently celebrated in the the majority of territories, albeit costly and budjet-consuming, is not only a heavy burden on the the state but also is to be dedicated to and invested...

Some peoples believe that the the expenditure of national feasts, presently celebrated in the the majority of territories, albeit costly and budjet-consuming, is not only a heavy burden on the the state but also is to be dedicated to and invested on more frutful and demanding issues. Nonetheless, For the sake of what are elaborated below I am absoloutly against this notion.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

?investing money for celebrations ,which are takan place in public areas in larg number of countries(such as national day,festival ,etc),costs too much.This idea ,that governors have to pay money for more functional stuff,are expressed by some...

?investing money for celebrations ,which are takan place in public areas in larg number of countries(such as national day,festival ,etc),costs too much.This idea ,that governors have to pay money for more functional stuff,are expressed by some citizens.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

Nowadays, copious nationas celebrate specific events annually. Being utterly extravagant, these celebrations are critisized to be replaced with more indispensable plans in states' budget programmes. Personally, I do advocate this approach and...

Nowadays, copious nationas celebrate specific events annually. Being utterly extravagant, these celebrations are critisized to be replaced with more indispensable plans in states' budget programmes. Personally, I do advocate this approach and believe that holding these events are not the responsibility of governments.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

Even though, withnessed to be celebrated in the majority of terrotories, costly feasts are to be superseded by more fruitful subjects; however, I am not personally in favor of this impression for diverse reasons.

This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

It is sometimes argued that allocating money by the government on extremely costly carnivals, such as national holidays and festivals which are celebrated in most nations, is pointless, and such expenses should be spent on more beneficial stuff....

It is sometimes argued that allocating money by the government on extremely costly carnivals, such as national holidays and festivals which are celebrated in most nations, is pointless, and such expenses should be spent on more beneficial stuff. I completely disagree with this view.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

There are many national events which are annually celebrated in different nations. I agree that these celebrations, entailing a huge sum of money, would not to be deserved to be
funded by the state, as there are more priorities in the society...

There are many national events which are annually celebrated in different nations. I agree that these celebrations, entailing a huge sum of money, would not to be deserved to be
funded by the state, as there are more priorities in the society to be spent on.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

In most countries, universal celebrations(such as national days , festival etc) are thrown . From some people's point of view expending money on more beneficial things can be better than hosting costly celebrations by governments.

This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

There are several nations in the world that celebrate different days, national days and festivals for instance. Holding these kinds of great events puts governments under economic pressure because it needs a huge amount of money to be held;...

There are several nations in the world that celebrate different days, national days and festivals for instance. Holding these kinds of great events puts governments under economic pressure because it needs a huge amount of money to be held; therefore, critics say that authorities should change their minds about spending budget on holding national events and allocate it in other economic spheres.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

There is a compelling evidence suggesting that while special occasions such as festivals or national days have being held in many countries for a long time,they can be relatively expensive.So as to some advocating the idea that what authorities...

There is a compelling evidence suggesting that while special occasions such as festivals or national days have being held in many countries for a long time,they can be relatively expensive.So as to some advocating the idea that what authorities should undertake is the responsibility of adopting proper budetary policies and alocate it to another important activities.although this fact that costs brought about by these kinds of celebrations are huge is undeniable, I partially agree with this statement and believe they are necessary as well as other important things.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

In many countries, the authorities ,holding some special occasions such as fedtivals and national days, allocates a great deal of budget to these situations. While people strongly believe that this expenses should be devoted for the betterment of...

In many countries, the authorities ,holding some special occasions such as fedtivals and national days, allocates a great deal of budget to these situations. While people strongly believe that this expenses should be devoted for the betterment of the essential needs of the community.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

In many countries,people assert that in replacement of holding social events such as National days and Festivals which are mostly cost very much government would better expend in more beneficials things

This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

While public celebrations used to have low costs to run, the recent decades have seen expensive festivals, which are hard on budget of states. Placing a premium only on more essential Needs from governments and prohibiting society from having...

While public celebrations used to have low costs to run, the recent decades have seen expensive festivals, which are hard on budget of states. Placing a premium only on more essential Needs from governments and prohibiting society from having these celebrations, however, seems not to be a good measure to take for expending, owing to a number of compelling reasons.

ادامه مطلب
This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site

A great deal of money is annually devoted on public celebrations, held in most countries, such as special occasions, international days and the like. This is to say, governments have no choice, but to allocate a lot of funds and financial aids...

A great deal of money is annually devoted on public celebrations, held in most countries, such as special occasions, international days and the like. This is to say, governments have no choice, but to allocate a lot of funds and financial aids for such occasions. To some, these events should not be supported financially by governments, the amount of money spent on these occasions should be allocated for the good of the community.

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