جلسه چهارم از دوره رایتینگ آنلاین

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کلازهای قیدی کوتاه شده یا reduced adverb clauses از تغییر کلازهای قیدی به یک فریز قیدی گفته میشه. خیلی نگران این تعریف‌ها نباشید چون تاثیری در تولید این جملات ندارد.

فقط تنها شرطی که باید قبل از هرچیز بهش توجه کنید اینه که باید فاعل ها با هم یکی باشند. بیاید اول چندتا مثال ببینیم و بعد میریم سراغ چگونگی ساخت اونها.

Because she has a test next week, she is studying very hard.
REDUCES TO:
Having a test next week, she is studying very hard.

 

Because she has a test next week, her mother is reviewing vocabulary with her.
CAN'T REDUCE TO:
Having a test next week, her mother is reviewing vocabulary with her.

البته یادتون باشه، همه Adverb Clauseها رو نمیشه Reduce کرد. اینجا میخوایم در مورد چندتا از پرکاربردترین اونها با هم صحبت کنیم.

کوتاه کردن کلازهای زمانی

  • کلمه مربوط به زمان رو نگه دارید.
  • فاعل رو حذف کنید.
  • اگر فعل معلوم بود  آنرا به Gerund و اگر مجهول بود، آنرا به PP تبدیل کنید.

After he took the test, he slept for a long time.
-> After taking the test, he slept for a long time.

Since I moved to Rochester, I have gone to the Philharmonic a number of times.
->  Since moving to Rochester, I have gone to the Philharmonic a number of times.

As، While و When همزمان

  • As رو حذف کنید.
  • فاعل رو حذف کنید.
  • اگر فعل معلوم بود  آنرا به Gerund و اگر مجهول بود، آنرا به PP تبدیل کنید.

As I was falling asleep, I thought about my friends in Italy.
-> Falling asleep, I thought about my friends in Italy.

When she was supported by the company, she could direct a good film.
-> Supported by the company, she could direct a good film.

Reduce کردن Adverb Clauses of Causality

کلازهای Causality که هدف اونها بیان دلیل چیزی است هم می توانند Reduce شوند. این کلازها معمولا با because، since یا as شروع میشن.

  • کانجاکشن ساب اوردینت رو حذف کنید
  • فاعل رو حذف کنید.
  • اگر فعل معلوم بود  آنرا به Gerund و اگر مجهول بود، آنرا به PP تبدیل کنید.

Because he was late, he drove to work.
-> Being late, he drove to work.

Since she was tired, she slept in late.
-> Being tired, she slept in late.

توجه داشته باشید که اگه فعل منفی بود از یک NOT قبل از فعل استفاده کنید.

As he didn't want to disturb her, he left the room quickly.
-> Not wanting to disturb her, he left the room quickly.

Because she didn't understand the question, she asked the teacher for some help.
-> Not understanding the question, she asked the teacher for some help.

 

Reduce کردن Adverb Clauses of Opposition

کلازهای قیدی Opposition با though، although و یا while شروع میشن.

  • کانجانکشن ساب اوردینت رو نگه دارید.
  • فاعل و فعل be رو حذف کنید.
  • اسم یا صفت رو نگه دارید و یا فعل اگر معلوم بود به Gerund و اگر مجهول بود به PP تبدیل کنید.

(adjective) While he was a happy man, he had many serious problems.
-> While happy, he had many serious problems.

(noun) Though she was an excellent student, she failed to pass the test.
-> Though an excellent student, she failed to pass the test.

(gerund) Although he had a car, he decided to walk.
-> Although having a car, he decided to walk.

As soon as

  • As soon as را حذف کرده و ب جای اون از upon و on استفاده کنید.
  • فاعل رو حذف کنید
  • اگر فعل معلوم بود  آنرا به Gerund و اگر مجهول بود، آنرا به PP تبدیل کنید.

As soon as she finished the report, she gave it to the boss.
-> Upon finishing the report, she gave it to the boss.

As soon as we woke up, we got our fishing poles and went to the lake.
-> On waking up, we got our fishing poles and went to the lake.

 و از درس قبل هم حتما این دو تا جمله رو یادتون می آید:


That is to say, because these areas are habitat for countless species, they are normally teeming with wild animals who may prey on humans.

That is to say, habitat for countless species, these areas are normally teeming with wild animals who may prey on humans.

Moreover, when these people are addicted to the adrenaline rush, they may simply rob themselves of the sense of joy, as other future experiences are highly unlikely to live up to their raised expectations and prove as fascinating as an excursion to a remote island or a safari in Africa.

Moreover, addicted to the adrenaline rush, these people may simply rob themselves of the sense of joy as other future experiences are highly unlikely to live up to their raised expectations and prove as fascinating as an excursion to a remote island or a safari in Africa.
 
 

از این به بعد وقتی می خواهید یک دلیل را در رایتینگ خود بنویسید. ابتدا به این ساختارها فکر کنید:

اگر.....، ......
چون ....، .....
وقتی ....، .....

و بعد جمله را به انگلیسی بنویسید

و سپس به شرط اینکه Subjectها یکی باشند، Reduction کنید.

به عنوان مثال فرض کنید می خواهید یک دلیل برای این موضوع بنویسید:

Topic No2. People in community now could buy cheaper consumer goods. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

به عنوان مثال فرض کنید می خواهید یک دلیل برای این موضوع بنویسید.

وقتی صنایع محلی بخواهند قیمت کالاهای مصرفی را کاهش دهند، آنها مجبورند کیفیت های خود را پایین بیاورند تا در بازار باقی بمانند.

When local industries tend to decrease the prices for their products, they are forced to lessen their quality to stay at market.

-> When tending to decrease the prices for their products, local industries are forced to lessen their quality to stay at market.

 

تمرین:  جملات زیر رو به Reduction of Adverbial Clause تبدیل کنید.

  1. While I was walking down the beach, I saw a dolphin stranded.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. When he was a little boy, he was very naughty.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. When they are used too often, words or phrases may lose their value.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. When you are walking alone at night in Paris streets, be careful.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. All the old museums must be renovated until they are opened for public again.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Since I came to this city, I've lived in the same house.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Because she is a mother now, she has more responsibilities.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. After we ate dinner, we went out for a walk.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. After he was promoted, he became more interested in his job.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Because I don’t know her phone number, I can’t call her.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. If they were treated fairly, they wouldn't lose the game.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Unless we are paid fairly, we will go on a strike.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. They were running hurriedly, as if they were being chased by someone.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

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