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پادکست شماره 51 بیان برتر - voting
پادکست شماره 51 بیان برتر - voting
قبل از گوش کردن، لغات را خوب بررسی کنید، متن را چندین بار گوش کرده و بعد از روی اسکریپت آن، بخشهایی را که متوجه نشدید بررسی کنید
Ballot: رای گیری، برگه رای
Encourage: تشويق كردن
Conservative: محافظه کار
Distribute: توزیع کردن
Obviously: به طور مشخص
این پادکست برای سطح C1 (آیلتس +6.5) طراحی شده است
Vote: رای دادن
Favorite: مورد علاقه
Eliminate: حذف کردن
The ballot box
Jackie: Voting is simple: you choose the candidate you want on the ballot paper and then tick the box by their name.
Richard: Er... it’s not that simple, Jackie, there are many different voting systems were looking at three of them.
Jackie: Okay, Richard, the first, and the simplest, is First Past the Post; whoever gets the most votes wins.
Richard: Yes, it’s easy to understand, the results are very quick.
Jackie: However, the system doesn't require the winner to get a vote majority...
Richard: IE more than 50% of the electorate, the people voting, voting for that person.
Jackie: Exactly, so when there's more than two options, for example, I don't know, 5 or 6 candidates, it’s possible then for the winner to actually only get a small percentage of the votes, let's say 25%, and then you have the case of electing someone which 75% of all the other people didn't choose.
Richard: Yes, the more candidates you have then of course, the smaller the percentage the winner will have.
Jackie: Exactly, and it puts people off voting. They think "oh, my candidate is never going to win, so what's the point in voting?"
Richard: Yes, now that encourages tactical voting. Ifs people voting, not for the candidate they most prefer, but actually simply against the candidate that they most dislike.
Jackie: It sounds a bit strange, doesn't it, but very typically in Britain when we have the three [main] parties, if people are Labour supporters and they know the Conservatives will probably win they'll vote for the Liberal [Democrat] party instead to stop the Conservatives getting in. So, you're not voting for the person that you want.
Richard: Exactly. Um... and another thing is vote splitting. Say you have four candidates but three of them have very, very similar views so obviously um... their support will be split and in all likelihood the one person with the different views may well get in.
Jackie: Yeah, so the second system that were looking at is the Second Round voting system. Now in this system the candidate must get a majority...
Richard: Over 50%.
Jackie: Yeah, now if that doesn't happen in the first round then usually only the 2 candidates with the most votes in the first round remain on the and then the process is repeated.
Richard: Yes, so if the urn... the people have only got the 2 options, the 2 candidates, then one of them must get a majority.
Jackie: Now the problem with that is of course it’s much more costly, twice as expensive, repeating the whole system...
Richard: Yeah, you've got to do it twice, that's no good really, is it?
Jackie: ...and, and of course it takes a lot longer. So there is a third system and that's called the Alternative Vote. Now this is a preferential system where the voter has the chance to rank the candidates, on the ballot paper, in order of preference.
Richard: Yes, so simply er... the voter puts T next to their first choice, '2' their second choice etc.
Jackie: If, when they count the papers, not one person has got 50% or more of the votes, then the person with the least number of votes gets eliminated and their second choice preferences are... are distributed amongst the remaining candidates.
Richard: And this is continued until one person has more than 50%.
Jackie: Yeah, it sounds a bit complicated but there lots of advantages. You still only vote once and it reduces the need for tactical voting.
Richard: Yes, so electors can vote for their first choice candidate without fear of wasting their vote. But there are disadvantages as well, obviously. Um... it is possible for a candidate to win because they have so many second preference votes even though they had fewer, actually, first preference votes, so they could've come second after the first round but then actually win it in the end. There are many different systems whether you're voting for a leader of a political party, or a general election... what are your views on this? Is there a perfect way?
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