قبل از گوش کردن، لغات را خوب بررسی کنید، متن را چندین بار گوش کرده و بعد از روی اسکریپت آن، بخشهایی را که متوجه نشدید بررسی کنید
Digest: هضم کردن
Essentially: ذاتا، اساسا
Fungi: گیاه قارچی
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Jackie: we’re talking about mushrooms. Richard, lots of questions for you 'cos you're the mushroom expert. Now what's the difference between a mushroom and a toadstool?
Richard: Well, its very simple really, a mushroom is edible and a toadstool is poisonous.
Jackie: Oh? Okay, that's simple. Now its autumn and I've seen loads of people looking for mushrooms now. Why... why is it such a good season?
Richard: Well, mushrooms are available for most of the year but autumn is the best time because its the autumn rains after the summer sun and its very humid, its the ideal growing conditions for mushrooms.
Jackie: And then, I've seen people in the woods and the forests with their buckets and things. Is that the best place to look for them?
Richard: Not necessarily because the common Field Mushrooms... obviously they are found in fields, lawns, school playing fields. Um... Fairy Rings, we see them in fields as well, animals... fields where animals graze for instance but woodlands are very good because the mushrooms, they feed off the rotting leaves and the dead wood, and some living trees as well.
Jackie: Now you say that they feed off rotting leaves, right? Because, now... mushrooms aren't plants, are they?
Richard: They're not plants and they're not animals
Richard: They um... they digest their food externally. Basically, plants make food from the sun...
Richard: ...essentially and animals eat food. And fungi, which is what mushrooms are, they do something different.
Jackie: Okay. Now I think the idea of eating wild mushrooms is great, free food.
Jackie: But many people are really nervous about doing that.
Richard: Yes, many mushrooms are edible, which is fantastic, but a lot of them don't taste very nice and some of them are very poisonous. No one should collect mushrooms without being 100% sure that they know they're okay to eat.
Jackie: Now we eat Field Mushrooms, okay, they grow around the fields near us and they seem very easy to identify so that's okay, isn't it?
Richard: Yes, but that's the problem you see there are many lookalikes. With the Field Mushroom there's one which turns yellow when you touch it, that's poisonous.
Jackie: So it looks like the Field Mushroom. Its white on top, with the... the brown gills underneath?
Jackie: But okay, alright, so I could make a mistake?
Richard: And many people do.
Jackie: What about that mushroom that you see in children's stories? The... you know, the red one with the white spots. Is that edible?
Richard: Very, very attractive, isn't it? Highly poisonous.
Jackie: Oh, really?
Richard: Yes. It probably won't kill you but its not very good to eat. That's called the Fly Agaric. Very famous.
Jackie: Now, so some can actually kill you?
Richard: Yes. The Death Cap is one that comes to mind. Its caused many deaths. It causes liver and kidney failure and again, that looks something similar to the Field Mushroom.
Richard: Yes. However, its [a] white cap with white gills.
Jackie: Right, okay.
Richard: So that should be a dead giveaway.
Jackie: A dead giveaway [both laugh]Richard: Yes
Jackie: Okay, but Ed still, you know Richard, I'd still love to find a Chanterelle. That amazing yellowy, gold colour.
Richard: Yes, they look and taste great but be careful. There's a False Chanterelle that can make some people sick.
Jackie: Oh. Okay, so what about you, the listeners, do you like collecting mushrooms? Do you like to eat them? We'd love to hear from you.
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